What We Do

Pugajinou International Consulting provides expertise and services in the following sectors:

Education, Training, Human Resources Development

Educational policy, reform, management and administration; Decentralization, assessment and implementation; Educational finance/ access to education; Monitoring and evaluation of education programs; Educational assessment studies; Design and delivery of remote/ on-line training; On-line courses; School- and community-based management of education; Competency-based curriculum development; Basic, secondary & tertiary education reform/ improvement; Vocational and technical training; Teacher training (at all levels); Graduate and non-degree program development; Technical vocational education and training; Informal education; Internationalization of education; Study tour design and implementation for government officials, university administrators and faculty, and twinning arrangements.


Environmental assessment and impact analysis; Environmental policy studies and development, Analysis and reform; Forestry and reforestation; Geographic Information Systems (GIS); Conservation and management of biodiversity; Community-based natural resources management; Coastal and marine resources management; Water and soil conservation; Water resources management; Watershed and river basin management; Land use analysis and spatial planning; Renewable/ green energy and alternative energy resource development; Issues of REDD/ carbon trading/ climate change.

Social Development and Governance

Community-based needs assessment; Participatory community development and engagement; (Participatory) monitoring and evaluation; Child protection; Gender equity and mainstreaming; Cooperative and association development; NGO and partnership formation and management; Social impact analyses; Ethnic minorities; Customary law; Management training; Organizational research and analysis; Technical capacity training and development; Human resources management and development; Strategic planning and stakeholder analysis; Service delivery optimization; Organizational analysis and reform; Capacity building; Good (corporate) governance; Institutional reform; Information and knowledge management.


Agricultural policy development, analysis and reform; Integrated rural development; Agro-forestry and community forestry; Irrigation and water user associations; Irrigation engineering; Farm restructuring and farming systems; Farmer communities empowerment; Agribusiness development and marketing; Horticulture; Food crops and food security; Land use planning and policy; Agricultural research and extension; Agricultural technology development; Aquaculture development (fisheries and marine resources)


Southeast Asia Pacific Management, Financial Sector, and Trade Policy (Phase II) – Labor Market Activation/ Skills Development

Project facts:

  • Project country: Indonesia
  • Financing source: Asian Development Bank
  • Duration of project: 16 months (2023-2024)
  • Client: Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs (CMEA)
  • Lead firm: Inno-Change International Consultants, Inc.
  • Associate firm: PT. Pugajinou International Consulting

The main objective of this project is to develop and pilot labor market activation programs proven successful in other countries that will: (i) address the high unemployment rate of youth1; and (ii) institutionalize a mechanism for employers to identify their skills needs and provide the necessary training so their employees can cope with the requirements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), digital technology, economic diversification and in turn, boost One of the pilot project’s sub-components comprises JobStart Indonesia (JSI).

JSI aims to improve the employability of unemployed youth by integrating them into productive Unemployed youth targeted by JSI are those Not in Education, Employment, or Training (NEET) or only educated at the high school level. JSI is a school-to-work transition program that prepares Indonesian youth for work by providing career counselling, life skills and workplace skills training, and job-matching services. The target demographic for the program is high school graduates with no work experience or less than one year of work experience between the ages of 19 and 29 and who desire to find paid employment. JSI is provides full-employment facilitation services that include career guidance, technical training and internship, job-matching, and referrals for interviews at partner employer companies. JSI is also charged with building the capacity of Disnakers to provide improved public employment facilitation services.

The key features of JSI are that it is a demand-driven skills and work experience acquisition program for unemployed youth that partners with the private sector, targeting those JSI helps employers meet workforce needs through job-ready, talented, and enthusiastic young women and men. JSI also contributes to long-term national human capital development in Indonesia by creating resilience in the labor market that can be tapped to form a basis for more rapid technology development through mandating technical training as an essential part of internships. However, although JSI pushes to have specialized training and transferable skills linked to internships, there is a realization that the program also needs to accommodate diversity. This means that JSI has created a strategy to accommodate the needs of a diverse group of employers and job seekers.

JSI has been piloted in two regions, Bandung Barat and These two pilots are ongoing and have received positive reactions from the intended stakeholders. Although there are challenges, and disruptions were brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, these are part of the pilot process to expand and rollout SSI throughout the country. Currently, out of the aggregate targeted 200 participants from both regions, 135 (68%) completed the Life Skills Training (LST) and Career Counseling (CC). 90 completed the LST online, and 45 participants completed the LST offline in Makassar. Of the 45 participants who completed LST offline in Makassar, 43 (96%) proceeded to and completed Technical Training (TT). Out of these LST and TT completers in

Makassar, eight (8) have been hired, and others are being considered for placement. The last batches of LST are ongoing, and Bandung Barat and Makassar are expected to achieve the 100% LST target by August 2023. Technical training in both provinces is being organized for the coming months to complete the target set for the pilot. The pilot expects over 60 percent of the participants will be employed once they complete the program.

Objectives of the Assignment

 This assignment aims to strengthen JSI in the pilot areas, and to expand JSI to other provinces/regions in Specifically, the project will evaluate both process and product and recommend further refinement before JSI is expanded. The project will also need to identify three (3) new regions/provinces where JSI will be expanded. The Consultants will employ the same identification and selection criteria used in the initial pilot phase. The assignment will require two cycles of the JSI Program – life skills training (LST) with Career Counselling, technical training, internship, and job placement. Lastly, a knowledge product in the form of a monograph or publishable article describing the process of implementing and institutionalizing JSI will be completed.

 The assignment is in fact a partial continuation of the Support to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Economic Community – Labor Market Activation Program (2019-2022) (see below) which aims to strengthen JobStart Indonesia (JSI) in the pilot areas Makassar and Bandung Barat, and to expand JSI to other provinces/ regions in Indonesia. Specifically, the project will evaluate both process and product and recommend further refinement before JSI is expanded. The project will also need to identify three (3) new regions/provinces where JSI will be expanded. The Consultants will employ the same identification and selection criteria used in the initial pilot phase. The assignment will require two cycles of the JSI Program – life skills training (LST) with Career Counselling, technical training, internship, and job placement. Lastly, a knowledge product in the form of a monograph or publishable article describing the process of implementing and institutionalizing JSI will be completed.

Support to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Economic Community – Labor Market Activation Program

Project facts:

  • Project country: Indonesia
  • Financing source: Asian Development Bank
  • Duration of project: 42 months (2019-2022)
  • Client: Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs (CMEA)
  • Lead firm: Inno-Change International Consultants, Inc.
  • Associate firms: PT. Pugajinou International Consulting

Project Background:

The ADB and the Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs (CMEA) have had several focus group discussions on labor market activation programs to be piloted in 2018–2019. The two that have been agreed by CMEA is i) the JobStart program and ii) the Enterprise-led Learning Network (ELLN) skills development funding program. The former focuses on helping young unemployed citizens to acquire life skills to better prepare them for the labor market whereas the latter focuses on upgrading demand driven technical skills by putting employers in the driver’s seat when it comes to identifying the skills that are  necessary.

The JobStart pilot is based on the successful implementation of the program in the Philippines. The pilot that was supported by ADB has now been institutionalized into a national program. JobStart Indonesia will open applications in selected provinces in Indonesia who would then be provided life skills and technical training developed in conjunction with enterprises who agree to join the initiative. These enterprises will also agree to provide interview opportunities to the candidates who have completed the JobStart program.

The ELLN model is private sector driven, companies come together to use their combined talents and resources to achieve results that would not be possible if the enterprises operated individually. This model focuses on upgrading demand driven technical skills by putting employers in the driver’s seat when it comes to identifying the skills that are necessary. This scheme draws from the Irish experience with a program called Skillnets which is considered international best practice. In the ELLN model, a group of like-minded enterprises from a specific sector or regional network, come together to identify the shared training needs of their employees and develop a plan to meet these needs including a budget, how it is going to be delivered, partners involved, etc. Training proposals are sent to the government on a competitive basis for matching grant funding.


The Government of Indonesia is improving labor market participation in line with its implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). One in four youth are not in employment, education, or training (NEET). Young women are even more at risk, with 32% aged from 15 to 24 classified as NEET. Those categorized as NEET come from low-income families, and the job entry barriers they face often perpetuate cycles of poverty and inequality. The JobStart pilot aims to address this development challenge. In addition, current workers are unable to upgrade their skills on a regular basis. Most workers, mainly low-skilled, do not have access to work-based learning. In response, the government requested ADB to support a pilot workplace skills funding scheme that establishes enterprise networks. The technical assistance will pilot both the JobStart and the ELLN in Indonesia.

Scope of Services

Provide support to implementation of the JobStart Program and the ELLN in Indonesia. The JobStart Program will be piloted in two Disnaker (Bandung Barat and Makassar) while three networks (in Bandung Barat, Makassar and Semarang) will be selected under the ELLN.

Pugajinou International Consulting as sub-consultant to Inno-Change International Consultants is responsible for identifying, selecting and contracting 11 national consultants, and providing performance monitoring and logistical support. Pugajinou also assists in the design of training modules for the JobStart Indonesia component of the program.

Minimum Service Standards Capacity Development Program, District Advisory Team Region III

Contract No.: 106824-S52247

Project facts:

  • Project country: Indonesia
  • Financing source: Asian Development Bank
  • Duration of project: 39 months (2013-2017)
  • Client: Ministry of National Education
  • Lead firm: PT. Pugajinou International Consulting
  • Associate firm: PT. Multi Area Desentralisasi Pembangunan (MADEP)

From December 2013 through November 2017, Pugajinou and its associate PT. Multi Area Desentralisasi Pembangunan (MADEP) implemented this “Minimum Service Standards Capacity Development Program” in four provinces of Sulawesi and Maluku. This grant program was financed by the European Union while the Asian Development Bank managed these funds on behalf of the Ministry of Education and Culture.

Project description:


In spite of significant progress in improvements and development of the education sector over the past decade or so, and in spite of the government’s commitment to applying minimum service standards in various sectors, the gap between the traditionally better developed “core” regions of parts of Java and Sumatra, and the outer regions, especially in Eastern Indonesia, remains. Increased investment in the education sector, improved teacher capabilities, improved learning and teaching materials and infrastructure, and high student enrollment rates have in many cases not reached remote and not-so-remote areas of Eastern Indonesia (including Papua, Maluku and Sulawesi).

Against this background and in view of what needs to be done, the project targets to develop the minimum service standards (MSSs) in education through the following outputs: (i) improving the capacity of educational district/school administration and management, (ii) developing awareness among all stakeholders concerned of the importance of MSSs, (iii) effective integration of MSSs into relevant functions and policies of the education sector.


Output 1: Improved capacity of district education administrations and school managements towards the achievement of MSSs. 110 pre-selected districts will receive district grants of approximately €200,000 to strengthen the capacity of district education administrations and school managements for planning, budgeting and managing education services in accord with the MSSs.

Output 2: Enhanced general public and education services decision-makers awareness of the education MSSs. The MSSs are intended to provide public service recipients with a more accessible and transparent understanding of the level of service to which they are entitled, enhancing accountability for the delivery of these services – as well as to provide government decision makers and education planners with a tool to improve efficiency in the distribution and utilization of resources in the education sector.

Output 3: More effective integration of MSSs into related education sector functions and policies. To extend the support towards accelerating the achievement of MSSs nationwide and streamline lessons from the district level, the TA will provide technical advisory services to assist DGBE in developing strategies for effective integration of education MSSs into related education sector functions and policies such as school accreditation schemes, overall school performance assessment programs, professional development programs for staff and other strategic functions/policies.

In the end, the program will have supported the formulation of a road map and action plan in each district on how to accelerate achievement of the minimum service standards in basic education where the road maps are integrated into local planning and budgeting documents (annual work plan, five-year strategic plan), and are legally supported by regional regulations.

Specific Tasks of the Consultant District Advisory Team

  • The District Advisory Team will undertake the initial socialization of the MSSs Capacity Development Program within each district, explain the scope of the program, and help the district to understand the guidelines (JUKLAK and JUKNIS) for the use of district grants, obtain confirmation of engagement, including details of counterparts and key stakeholders and contributions from the respective district. The district advisory team will establish a data base of counterparts and key stakeholders.
  • The District Advisory Team will help the district administrations to: (i) conduct an MSSs assessment in 2013, and determine the ‘MSSs gap’ in each project district; and (ii) assess district capacity to prepare and implement plans to achieve MSSs district wide.
  • In collaboration with the MSSs Technical Advisor and Operations Management Specialist, the District Advisory Team will assist the district administrations to prepare District Grant proposals that will be based on a menu of options approved by the EA, and shall match the needs as reflected in the MSSs status quo assessment. Each district will be eligible for a grant of approximately €200,000.
  • The District Advisory Team will assist the district administrations in the implementation of measures financed by District Grants, and support districts to integrate strategies and resources required to meet MSSs in the annual development plans and budgets. Furthermore, the District Advisory Team will support the facilitation of MSSs advocacy campaigns at their respective districts. The District Advisory Team will assist the district in preparing program and financial reports in order to be accountable for reimbursement by the central government. In a later phase of the project, the Team will assist the district to conduct MSSs survey to measure the progress of achievement as compared to the baseline data.

Click here to download a copy of the ministerial regulation on the minimum service standards in basic education (in Indonesian)

Targeted Budget Support for National Education for All (EFA), TBS II

The government of Viet Nam/ the Ministry of Education and Training implemented an Overseas Development Aid where consulting firm (Hanoi TC Expert) was responsible for project implementation. This firm recruited Pugajinou for the planning support and EMIS component.

Project description:

The objectives of the Targeted Budget Support for National Education for All (EFA), are to assist Viet Nam in the implementation of its National Education for All Action Plan through: (a) targeted budgetary support for selected sub-projects of the National Targeted Program for Education (NTP-E) which are designed to enhance the quality of basic education, and (b) strengthening of the administration of the NTP-E. TBS-EFA will contribute towards the achievement of the goals of the National EFA Action Plan by providing targeted budgetary support through the NTP-E disbursement process. In response to the government’s request, priority will be given to basic education and to the improvement of educational outcomes in this sub-sector. More specifically, TBS-EFA will support Viet Nam to make progress towards the improvement of educational outcomes through a package of investments designed to enhance the quality of education in classrooms as well as to strengthen the administration of the education system. The goal of TBS-EFA is that, during the period of support, the number of schools achieving Fundamental School Quality Levels will increase. Since schools with low FSQL scores tend to serve poorer communities, the beneficiary group will contain a higher proportion of poor children and ethnic minorities than the population of Viet Nam in general.

The Consultant was responsible for:

  • A comprehensive review of educational data collection procedures conducted by communities, schools, district offices and provincial offices. The review included:
  • All procedures and processes of data collection,
  • Identification of all participants and roles,
  • All forms and other instrumentation/documentation utilized, and
  • All software and systems utilized.

The outcomes of the data procedures review consisted of:

  • A comprehensive report detailing all analyses and other activities undertaken, including clear referencing to all documentation utilized, personnel involved, and any other information sources, and the apparent quality of processes and data,
  • A clear description (map) of all relevant procedures, other practices and instrumentation pertaining to data collection and utilization, as outlined above, and particularly including detailed analysis of the ways in which data are utilized,
  • A detailed calendar or schedule of data collection and utilization procedures pertaining to school, BOET, DOET and MOET levels,
  • Delivery of a workshop to consider data review outcomes,
  • A set of considered implications and conclusions which may reasonably be drawn from the analysis undertaken, and
  • A set of practical recommendations for improvement which may reasonably be drawn from the implications identified and the conclusions drawn.

Assistance to national consultants and the Chief Technical Advisor (CTA) with development of a national database for the National Targeted Programs – Education. This included:

  • Review of NTP-E evaluation documentation and collaboration with national and international TBS-EFA personnel to determine relevant content and functions for the National NTP-E Database
  • Review of existing national and international public information databases and provision of advice regarding desira­ble structure and features of the new database
  • Assistance with compilation of NTP-E Database content

Integrated Rice Cultivation Development Project, Feasibility Study and Agribusiness Master Plan Design

Project facts:

  • Project country: Nigeria
  • Financing source: private sector
  • Duration of project: 6 months (2012)
  • Client: Private sector
  • Lead firm: Pugajinou International Consulting

Project description:

The ultimate prime objective of the project is to generate an economic and financial return for the investment through an integrated rice cultivation, milling and marketing business plan centered around the production of refined rice.

The project consists of two components:

  • Feasibility study for the integrated rice cultivation development project

The purpose of this component is to assist the Client and assess the technical, agricultural, economic, financial, legal, socio-cultural and environmental feasibility of the “Integrated Rice Cultivation Development Project”, which is conceived as a public-private alliance. The planned rice production estate will focus on high-yielding rice varieties, and full mechanization of production, where possible.

  • Development of a detailed draft agribusiness master plan

The purpose of this component of the project is to assist the Client in formulating a general (agri-) business plan that serves to develop the rice cultivation estate into a regional agribusiness center (or what can be coined as “Agropolitan”)

It is expected that the outputs of the project comprise:

  • A detailed report with recommendations on the technical, agricultural, economic, financial / profitability, legal, socio-cultural and environmental feasibility of the project;
  • A draft design and architectural layout of the estate; and
  • A detailed draft Agribusiness Master Plan.

Technological and Professional Skills Development Project (TPSDP), Overseas Degree Training Program Universitas Syiah Kuala Aceh

Project facts:

  • Project country: Indonesia
  • Financing source: Asian Development Bank
  • Duration of project: 24 months (2005-2007)
  • Client: Ministry of National Education; Syiah Kuala University
  • Lead firm: South-East Consortium for International Development
  • Associate firms: PT. Poli Sistem Inovasi; PT. Pugajinou International Consulting

Project description:

The program will arrange for about 30 participants to obtain MSc. and Ph.D. degrees in various fields of study such as chemistry, mathematics, statistics, computer science, biotechnology, geo-technology, transport, geophysics, hydro-technology, and civil engineering at renowned and accredited universities in Europe, the United States and the Asia-Pacific region. Upon return to Indonesia, the successful participants are expected to further contribute to improving educational standards at their university.

Services: Selection of overseas universities, placement of students; student progress monitoring; student advisory and guidance; financial transactions and administration; coordination with overseas universities, client and donor institutions; reporting; contract negotiations.

Mapping and Analysis of Good Practices in Basic Education together with Related Local Capacities


Project facts:

  • Project country: Indonesia
  • Financing source: UNICEF
  • Duration of project: 7 months (2006-2007)
  • Client: UNICEF / Ministry of National Education
  • Lead firm: South-East Consortium for International Development
  • Associate firm: PT. Pugajinou International Consulting

Project description:

This project will support the Government of Indonesia in developing local capacities (from district down to school levels) to implement and mainstream good practices in basic education into policy priorities and plans in the districts in selected provinces. The good practices should comprise any initiative or intervention that will improve any, some or all of the aspects of access, quality, relevance and efficiency of basic education.

The objectives of the project are:

  • Mapping of good practices at school and district level
  • Mapping of local capacities in sample and target districts
  • Analysis of good practices and of local capacities in sample districts and of local capacities in target districts

Activities include:

  • Development of research design of mapping and analysis
  • Development of research tools/instruments for mapping and analysis
  • Organizing a review workshop at national level of stakeholders
  • Training of a supporting team of research assistants
  • Data collecting by a supporting team of research assistants together with government counterpart personnel

The Consultant was responsible for: Identification, recruitment and contracting of experts; quality control of reports; logistics support; financial administration, and general project management.

Feasibility Assessment to Support Technical Education in Aceh Province

Project facts:

  • Project country: Indonesia
  • Financing source: U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Duration of project: 3 months (2006)
  • Client: U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Lead firm: DevTech Systems, Inc.
  • Associate firms: South-East Consortium for International Development; PT. Pugajinou International Consulting

Project description:

Feasibility assessment for USAID/Indonesia’s Office of Education to identify options for strengthening the quality, relevance and access to technical education in Aceh province.  This assessment is an important component of the USAID-Chevron $10 million public-private alliance to support technical education in Aceh after the tsunami of December 2004.  Signed in May 2005, the objectives of the USAID-Chevron alliance include increasing the ability of Acehnese, particularly women, to participate in reconstruction, obtain employment and to support overall economic development in the province.  The first phase of the program now underway focuses on providing short-term and intensive training opportunities for approximately 330 Acehnese youth in key areas related to reconstruction (carpentry, welding, etc.) at Chevron’s technical training facility in Riau.

Based on the recommendations of this feasibility study, USAID and Chevron will contribute up to $5 million each to provide a combination of facility construction and technical assistance to strengthen the provision of technical education within Aceh province at the post-secondary (higher education) level.  Chevron’s experience in developing a polytechnic institute in Riau province (the PCR) from start to finish provides an effective model that to the extent possible can be used to meet the needs in Aceh.  The recommendations of this assessment have guided the future investment of the USAID-Chevron alliance for technical education.

The USAID-Chevron public-private alliance is a critical element of the overall USG recovery and reconstruction assistance program for Aceh.  Through a Strategic Objective Agreement with the Government of Indonesia’s Agency for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction in Aceh (the BRR), the United States has committed to provide over $330 million to promote recovery and reconstruction in Aceh.  A major component of the U.S. program in Aceh is support for the rehabilitation of the critical Banda Aceh to Meulaboh road. Other activities focus on livelihood restoration, longer-term economic recovery, small infrastructure, community development and basic local government services.  The USAID-Chevron alliance plays an important role in supporting these efforts.

The Consortium was responsible for fielding of the team to conduct the above assessment and provide recommendations as warranted; progress monitoring; quality control of the assessment report, recruitment and contracting of local experts; liaison and coordination with USAID, local governments, universities and the private sector. The team developed the overall educational assessment framework; assessed existing technical and vocational education institutions; assessed the short- and long-term industry demand, including anticipated growth sectors; assessed the construction aspects of the feasibility study and associated costs, and provided recommendations set forth in a detailed assessment report.

Final Evaluation of the Managing Basic Education (MBE) Project

Project facts:

  • Project country: (Indonesia
  • Financing source: U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Duration of project: 3 months (2007)
  • Client: U.S. Agency for International Development
  • Lead firm: The Mitchell Group
  • Associate firms: South-East Consortium for International Development; PT. Pugajinou International Consulting

Project description:

The project evaluated the $3 million Managing Basic Education: Developing Local Government Capacity (MBE) program, which began in February 2003.
The objective of this evaluation is two-fold:

  • To examine and report on the overall impact of the MBE project as it draws to a close, including detailed information on the results and impact achieved by MBE, strengths and weaknesses of the project and its implementation mechanisms, and lessons learned.
  • To explore and examine strategies and approaches for continuing to support successful elements of the MBE project after its completion by linking with the Government of Indonesia (GOI), other democracy and governance related projects, and potentially, other implementers.

This evaluation will determine the extent the MBE contractor accomplished the contract’s tasks, including an analysis of the implementation and achievement of the work plan goals, and a general constructive discussion and critique of the strengths and weaknesses of MBE’s technical approach. The evaluation will report on how teachers, school administrators, district authorities, and community members perceive the MBE interventions and what they think the major contributions of MBE have been, including what has been most meaningful and useful, and what has been perceived as ineffective or not useful.
The evaluation will also consider the extent to which the activities conducted enabled the accomplishment of the targeted Strategic Objective: Improving the Quality of Decentralized Basic Education and the two targeted intermediate results:
Decentralized Management and Governance of Schools and Improved Quality of Teaching and Learning.
Key to the evaluation will be the critical recommendations on how to focus and consolidate the best practices of MBE and leverage and scale up successful results creatively in the absence of any additional funding.

Danker Schaareman was responsible for project coordination, fielding the team of specialists, consultation with government agencies involved, and providing technical input and logistical support

Production of Updated Inter-institutional / Common-reference Pilot Maps under Participatory Approach for the Completion of a ‘Single Map’ for Aceh

Project facts:

  • Project country: Indonesia
  • Financing Source: European Commission/ EuropeAid
  • Duration of Pugajinou’s involvement: 30 person days between end of November 2015 and mid May 2016
  • Client: Government of Aceh province/ Delegation of the European Union to Indonesia
  • Lead Firm: Particip (Germany) with GEOTEST (Netherlands) and ETI (France)
  • Position of Pugajinou: Sub-consultancy with GEOTEST

The Leuser Ecosystem (LE) together with the Ulu Masen Ecosystem covers an area of about 3.3 million hectares of largely undisturbed expanse of tropical rainforest in the Indonesian provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra. Its biodiversity, climate and hydrological regulating functions and provision of a sustainable source of livelihoods for approximately four million Acehnese people make the Leuser Ecosystem an area of national and global importance. The environmental and economic benefits of the Leuser Ecosystem are inextricably linked and make it an essential asset for the economic development of Aceh. The LE has been delineated in the field and acknowledged in a series of decrees at the local and national level and has been identified by international scientific bodies as one of the top 25 critical ecosystems in the world and the only remaining place on earth where tigers, elephants, rhinos, and orangutans can be found living together in the wild.

Global objective

To support environmentally-sound and sustainable economic development in Aceh through enhanced land use decisions

Specific objective(s)

Production and updating of existing inter-institutional and common-reference pilot maps for Aceh to be (eventually) integrated into a final ‘Single map for Aceh’.

This will help harmonise existing planning capacity and development activities by the Government of Aceh and promote sustainable development while ensuring protection and sustainable use of important environmental resources in the province.

The datasets obtained and/or created would as a minimum be sufficient to be used in a strategic environmental impact assessment of the current and any future proposed spatial plan and be able to inform decision makers on the impacts of land allocation policies. The resulting maps will provide a common platform enabling the optimisation of land use that enables development whilst maintaining environmental services and used to highlight deforestation activities in environmentally sensitive regions on a commonly accessible platform that can be an important source for any further interventions from many different stakeholders in the region.

Requested services

(1) Define the data required to be used to develop maps needed to perform a strategic  environmental impact assessment and landscape High Conservation Value (HCV) assessment.

  • Provide a preliminary analysis of data required to identify environmental and ecological sensitive areas whose loss would significantly impact environmental services and/or biodiversity.
  • Through an expert’s workshop with key government and non-government  stakeholders assess data requirements and discuss the availability of the data and possible alternative datasets.
  • Compile a report on the outcomes of the workshop.

(2) Work with the Government of Aceh and other stakeholders compile existing datasets from Government and non-government sources in preparation for further analysis.

(3) Utilize the data to conduct a series of analyses that identify environmental and ecological sensitive areas including High Conservation Value (HCV) areas that may include among  others:

  • Soil erosion potential.
  • Hydrological function.
  • Carbon storage.
  • Areas important for biodiversity

(4) Identify communities at risk from loss of hydrological function of watersheds.

(5) Analyze the current spatial plans to identify areas allocated for production that may have significant environmental impacts.

(6) Conduct data review and analysis of existing development and environmental maps in Aceh (from Government and non-Government sources) which will optimally lead to a completion of a “single map” for Aceh

The datasets obtained and/or created would as a minimum be sufficient to be used in a strategic environmental impact assessment of the current and any future proposed spatial plan and be able to inform decision makers on the impacts of land allocation policies. The resulting maps will provide a common platform enabling the optimization of land use that enables development whilst maintaining environmental services and used to highlight deforestation activities in environmentally sensitive regions on a commonly accessible platform that can be an important source for any further interventions from many different stakeholders in the region.

Typical questions that the assignment should aim to answer may include (but not be limited to)

  • How can the development of a single environmental map in Aceh be created and valid data be gathered?
  • How can the environmental map benefit governmental and non-governmental bodies and how can it be used?

Required outputs

  • A single environmental map for Aceh is created by data review and analysis of existing development and environmental pilot maps in Aceh (from Government and non-Government sources).
  • A system in place that allows open access to all stakeholders to this dataset.

The tasks of the GIS expert include:

Under the supervision of the Land Use management and Spatial Planning specialist compile any missing data that is needed to create environmental map(s) for Aceh and ensure data quality and validity of data being utilized. Support the work of the Land Use management and Spatial Planning specialist in entering the data into a unified database.

Coastal and Marine Resources Management in the Coral Triangle – Southeast Asia – T3: Project Management (TA 7813-REG)

Project facts:

  • Project country: Indonesia
  • Financing source: Asian Development Bank
  • Duration of project: 6 months (2012-2013)
  • Client: Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries
  • Lead firm: AECOM Asia, Ltd.
  • Associate firms: PT. Pugajinou International Consultants); PT. Multi Area Desentralisasi Pembangunan (MADEP)

General Project Summary: The Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program (COREMAP) was designed as a three-phase, multi-donor initiative to strengthen the management and conservation of Indonesia’s coral reefs and associated ecosystems. The Project was planned for implementation in three phases over 15 years. Phase 1, the initiation phase, consisted of intensive resource rehabilitation and management activities in four pilot sites as well as national-level activities aimed at establishing a viable policy and legal framework and strategy for coral reef management. Phase 2 is the follow-on phase whose objectives of the Project are to (i) enhance the national and local capacity to manage the country’s coral reef resources and (ii) rehabilitate and effectively manage priority coral reef ecosystems, thereby helping raise income levels and improving living standards among poor coastal communities. The implementation systems and approaches initiated/pilot-tested in Phase 1 and applied in an accelerated mode in Phase 2 will be consolidated and institutionalized in a final six-year Phase project known as COREMAP-CTI. Phase 2 ended in December 2011. However, the work on rehabilitating, managing, and conserving coral reefs continues including institutionalization and considering the impending impacts of climate change. Aligning with the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI) National Plan of Action (NPOA) of Indonesia on coastal resources management and building on the lessons learned from, and knowledge created in COREMAP 1 and 2, a scaling-up investment project named COREMAP-CTI has already been identified by Indonesian Government as an national project for implementing COREMAP-CTI. This preliminary investment project framework has already been developed by the Government of Indonesia which needs to be further fine tuned including development of targets, overall costing and identification of feasible geographic coverage area. This support will also conduct a feasibility study for ADB covered geographical area for the identified COREMAP-CTI project. It is envisaged that the investment program will cover wider geographical areas than those covered by COREMAP 2.

Pugajinou’s tasks included:

  • Identification, recruitment and contracting of local experts
  • Monitoring of performance of experts and quality control
  • Team management
  • Liaison with government agencies involved
  • Backstopping
  • Project implementation assistance

Earthquake and Tsunami Emergency Support Project (ETESP), Package 38, Information Support for Management of Aceh’s Forest Resources (ADB Grant 0002-INO)


Project facts:

  • Project country: Indonesia
  • Financing source: Asian Development Bank
  • Duration of project: 14 months (2008-2009)
  • Client: Agency for Reconstruction and Rehabilitation (BRR)
  • Lead firm: South-East Consortium for International Development
  • Associate firms: PT. Mitra Consulindo International; PT. Pugajinou International Consulting

The ETESP will provide rehabilitation and reconstruction support to mitigate the damages caused by the devastating earthquake and tsunami. It will help restore essential public services, rebuild infrastructure and revive economic activity through livelihood support. In view of the scale, complexity and nature of the disaster, ETESP adopts a two-phased approach, focusing first on the provision of development support to the less affected regions, along with launching of assessments in the most affected regions where work will be initiated after the resolution of spatial planning and safeguard issues.

The purpose of the proposed assistance is to establish an information system to support forest management and to outline forest zoning recommendations and alternatives in NAD.

Approach and Methodology

The establishment of a geographic information system (GIS)-based forestry information system will consist of: (i) establishment of baseline information concerning forests and other natural resources the utilization of which affects them; (ii) establishment of a GIS-based forestry information system as a tool to support forest management, including the implementation and enforcement of forest-related laws and regulations; (iii) land suitability and current land use assessment of current and planned forest management policies, plans and programs; and (iv) capacity building within key technical positions to provide a sustainable ongoing information system following the completion of this project. In the longer term this proposed forestry information system could become an integrated part of a provincial natural resources management system that also encompasses fisheries, agriculture, mining, and the environment.

The establishment of baseline information and a forestry information system will be done in seven steps:

  • Information analysis based on consultations with NAD forestry stakeholders. The working group and key stakeholders will be intensively consulted about their information needs, existing data and existing standards to ensure the content and direction of this project leads to providing a tool that is useful for the new forest management institution.
  • Design and development of forestry information system. Design and development of the spatial database and basic applications making use of Arc GIS tools and existing standards (in order of preference: national, provincial, international, or designed under the study if not yet available).
  • Initial data collection. Based on the results of the consultations with the forestry stakeholders, information and data will be identified to be included in the forestry information system. Since the tsunami a lot of aerial and satellite imagery of NAD has been collected not only by the ETESP SPEM projects but also BRR SIM-C, FFI, LIF and other organizations. All relevant data will be collated and stored into a GIS-based information system, considering existing data standards and as much as possible using the Aceh Spatial Data Infrastructure that is currently under development.
  • Identification of the forest areas in NAD and its condition. This will be done using recent satellite and/or radar imagery. The status will be classified according to FAO used parameters, i.e. crown cover, cubic meters/ha and biomass/ha. This will have to be supported by ground truthing. This would be in support of the current logging moratorium, to allow for an appropriate basic level stocktaking of forest resources in the province prior to any further interventions. This would also help to identify significant areas of logging activities.
  • Mapping of those parts of the forests that are affected by human intervention and the land use of the surrounding areas. If the available aerial and satellite imagery does not provide sufficient level of detail, additional imagery is required. Also ground truthing will be required. This will result in more detailed baseline data for the areas identified.
  • Development of forest management tools

The GIS-based forestry information system will include tools to compile forest cover, land cover, land suitability, and planned land use data in order to compare these and provide management information to authorities that are responsible for forest management, monitoring of activities in and around forests and forest-related law enforcement.

  • Forest monitoring. The forest monitoring application is a tool to periodically determine changes using satellite and aerial imagery obtained at different moments in time. Once this imagery has been compared with that of a previous date and analyzed, the system will provide essential information in order to detect changes in forest use and status over time. The monitoring application will be used to identify temporal changes, over one period (length to be determined) and depending on available data. This temporal analysis will be oriented to the identification of areas affected by human activities (“hot spots”). Hot spots will be reported to the appropriate forest management agency for verification of actual activities on the ground.
  • Determination of contradictions between different land uses. Contradictions will be identified through comparison of the results of the spatial data analysis, land suitability analysis and environmental assessment. Based on Kabupaten-level documents and development proposals by other APG agencies or line ministries (agriculture, plantation, mining, forestry, infrastructure), overlaying of forest cover data with designated land-use/ forest function zoning (e.g. production forest, protected forest) and locations for proposed development and forest management activities to identify conflicting uses, current or potential.
  • Forest rezoning for NAD. Integration of the outputs from vi-a and vi-b, together with sustainable forest management alternatives for identified conflict forest zones will identify no-go-, slow-go forest areas, and other forest and land use management alternatives including reforestation, which can be proposed as input for the provincial forest zoning in NAD. The sustainable forest management alternatives should be obtained through a consultation process with forestry stakeholders. The zoning results will be displayed in a map at appropriate scale showing revised forest utilization/ management zones based on principles of sustainable forest management and appropriate land use recommendations for adjacent areas (buffer zones). This possibly will provide the basis for legalization of the plans as part of a new provincial law regulation (‘Qanun’) on sustainable forest management in NAD, guiding future development planning (RTRW) processes in the Kabupaten with significant forest resources.
  • Stakeholder capacity building and knowledge transfer. To ensure sustainability of the forestry information system, including that of forest and other land use spatial data analysis described above, two to three provincial government forest management officers with basic knowledge of GIS and remote sensing will be trained on the job in using remote sensing interpretation and, if applicable, field data collection methods for critical and selected forest areas. One training focus will be on information system management, and the other on using remote sensing tools for the purpose of regular monitoring of forest conditions. This involves the set up of a provincial remote sensing monitoring lab with equipment used by the Project. As much as possible, the trainees should be involved from the very beginning of the creation of the forest management system in order that they get ownership of the system. This task will also provide financial assistance for the participation of provincial government officials to meet the objectives of this task.


The following outputs will be produced during the study:

  • GIS based forestry information system;
  • Consultation of key stakeholders and focused roadmap for forestry information system.
  • Maps showing forest and adjacent land cover for NAD at an appropriate scale;
  • Digital dataset as forest and land cover baseline (2007) for future monitoring activities.
  • Identification of fringe areas where human activities may affect the management of the forest area to focus management and monitoring activities.
  • Maps for NAD, showing current and future land-use-forest cover conflict areas at an appropriate scale.
  • Recommended revisions to provincial forestry zoning at an appropriate scale, as input for a strategic plan for sustainable forest management in NAD.
  • Capacity building and knowledge transfer to provincial government forest authorities; guidelines for the use of the forestry information system.

In the start-up phase Dr. Danker Schaareman acted as interim Team Leader, and was responsible for conducting initial discussions with the Agency for Reconstruction and Rehabilitation (BRR) and ADB, mobilization of the expert team, stakeholder liaison, finalization of the work plan, and delivery of the inception report. As project Director he was responsible for general project implementation, timely delivery of reports and quality control, management of the expert team, and liaison with the Client and ADB as well as, in June 2009, project close-out

Thematic Evaluation of Visibility of EU External Action


Project facts:

  • Project country: Indonesia
  • Financing source: European Commission
  • Duration of Jakarta evaluation component: 2 weeks
  • Client: European Commission
  • Lead firm: Development Researchers’ Network (DRN), Italy
  • Associate firm for the Jakarta evaluation component: PT. Pugajinou International Consulting

Project description:

Evaluation study addressing the visibility of EU external action; thematic study on “Environment, Biodiversity and Deforestation”. Indonesia was selected for undertaking a country visit with the aim of assessing the visibility of EC policy and cooperation portfolio in that country with a focus on the thematic areas and particularly on Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT), a flagship program of the EU in the fight against illegal logging. A Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) was signed in May 2011 between Indonesia and the EU.


The field visits had the following objectives:

  • To collect data in order to answer the agreed evaluation questions;
  • To evaluate eventual hypotheses formulated at the end of the desk phase;
  • To assess whether there is need for further research and interviews to prepare the synthesis report, and in particular the conclusions and recommendations chapter.


During the Field Phase, Pugajinou associate Ms. Budi Prati carried out the following tasks:

  • Conduct of interviews and/or focus group discussions and/or project visits, with the identified informants related to the issue “Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade” (FLEGT) following the agreed methodology and guidelines. The organization of the field visits in project locations was decided after the briefing of DRN expert with the EU Delegation staff on Monday, 27th of June.
  • Assist in conducting a media survey of main national newspapers and other national web sources. The survey covered a defined timeframe (i.e. May 2011) and was based on selected key words (“Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade”, “FLEGT”, “Voluntary Partnership Agreement”, “VAP”, “forest”, “Indonesia”).
  • Provide interpretation services as needed.


As result of the above activities, the expert contributed to the delivery of the following outputs:

  • A report of the media coverage survey explaining the sources of information, the methodology applied, the preliminary findings and the analytical outcome;
  • The list of people met for the purpose of the assignment and the highlights of such meetings;
  • A description of other activities such as field visits, documentary reviews, etc.

Supporting the Cities Development Initiative for Asia – PFS in Palu Bay Development

Project Facts:

  • Project Country: Indonesia
  • Financing Source: Asian Development Bank
  • Duration of Pugajinou’s involvement: 54 days from November 2015 to February 2016
  • Client: Regional Development Planning Board (Bappeda)
  • Lead firm: Urban Solutions BV in association with PT. Ciria Rancangbangunan Mandiri (CRM)
  • Position of Pugajinou: Sub-consultancy with PT. Ciria Rancangbangun Mandiri

The objectives of this assignment are

  • To develop a Pre-feasibility Study (PFS) for the Palu Bay Development concept focusing on developing Palu Bay as a well-planned, well-serviced locale for catalyzing the City economy as well as enhancing the aesthetic and historic-cultural value of the Palu Bay area. Smaller components relating to the sanitation, drainage, sewerage, flood management, solid waste management, water-based transport, climate change and disaster risk reduction needs of the area and are also to be considered.
  • To develop financing options for the project and help the City Government of Palu identify potential financial resources, particularly from external sources, to implement the Palu Bay Development design concept and all (or some) of its components.
  • To identify capacity gaps in the preparation and implementation of the Project and design and deliver capacity development interventions that address these gaps so as to enable the City Government of Palu to implement its projects in a successful and sustainable manner.

The Social & Institutional Development Specialist provided by Pugajinou has the following tasks:

  • Review, existing urban development strategies/plans, and data relevant to urban poverty and the relation between the proposed projects and other on-going initiatives.
  • Review, existing relevant governance and institutional set-up.
  • Provide a brief overview of urban poverty, gender and social issues in Palu (situational analysis), related to urban infrastructure in general and to the project area and specific project sectors, in particular.
  • Assist TL and DTL in the development and application of the Stakeholders Communication and Consultation Plan and assure that the poor, women, minorities, and disadvantaged groups are well represented.
  • Ensure a participatory PFS development process ensuring that all stakeholders are appropriately consulted (including beneficiaries, affected communities, NGOs, CBOs, formal and informal organizations and leaders), and that consultations lead to well informed and transparent decision making.
  • Assist the TL and DTL in carrying out the design of Palu Bay area with particular attention on the informal vendors and settlements (refer to the TL tasks for more details).
  • Conduct a stakeholders identification and analysis and a social and poverty needs analysis and assessment that includes formal and informal activities and trades in and around the market area to ensure that the market renovation/revitalization design sufficiently addresses the needs of all stakeholders, that it is inclusive of the urban poor, and gender-sensitive.
  • Ensure that all team specialists are informed of the result of the social analysis and assessment, and that the specific issues, requirements, and needs raised during project research and consultations are considered in the project’s technical, environmental, financial and institutional analysis and design. If they are not considered, an explanation to be provided.
  • Ensure maximization of project impacts on the poor with the application of the CDIA Checklist for Pro-Poor and Socially Inclusive Urban Infrastructure Development attached to this TOR.
  • Assist in developing objectives for poverty reduction in the proposed projects and suggest concrete design options to ensure positive impacts on poverty reduction and inclusiveness. Develop indicators for poverty reduction and inclusiveness as part of the project Design and Monitoring Framework.
  • Highlight human capital as special arts, traditions and behaviors in order to provide synergies or to prevent conflicts in tourism.
  • Identify and develop social support systems or mechanisms to enhance, empower or facilitate the inclusion of poor and disadvantaged in the project (support for cooperatives, subsidies, employment in O&M of project services, facilities, formation of saving groups, etc.).
  • Assure that investments and cost analysis consider the inclusion of poor groups, and that access to affordable services is assured.
  • Identify potential adverse social impacts (relocation, loss of income, loss of livelihoods, gentrification, economic exclusion, etc.) and recommend mitigation measures, ensuring that internationally acceptable social safeguard criteria are built into PFS project recommendations.
  • Assist in highlighting any significant social development issues requiring further in-depth analysis and assist to develop the scope of work for in-depth review later at PF stage. Assist the assessment of how these issues could affect feasibility/viability of the investment.
  • Provide a brief overview which groups and what areas will benefit from the project and how this is ensured by the design features on long-term.
  • Document the participatory process (type of meetings, objective, persons attending, sex, main issues, and decisions), and write and edit the social and poverty inputs for inclusion in the PFSs documents

She will work with other consultants to:

  • Help recommend the implementation and business structure taking into account down­stream financing arrangements.
  • Coordinate with the TL and the Infrastructure Finance Specialists on alternative options for operations and management to benefit urban poor and reach gender balance.
  • Provide detailed recommendations and identified next steps related to the institutional arrangements to implement the revitalization project.
  • Assist with the development of the Design and Monitoring Framework (DMF)